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MAKING OF AKBAR THE GREAT

MAKING OF AKBAR THE GREAT

MAKING OF AKBAR THE GREAT
by Kalpana Singh
The ‪#‎Making‬ of ‪#‎AkbarTheGreat‬ ( ref Heinrich Von,University of Tuebingen,Germany , ‪#‎PlannedSyncretism‬)
During 1556-1560, there were well known conflicts in the religious spheres between Sunni,Shiites and numerous Sufi sects. Few of the Sufi sects like Jalaliya & Raushaniya were influenced by Saiva ascetics.Hindu influences were displayed by Piyarapanthin Sufis.

As per Ain-i-Akbari, unbelievers of Islam had to distinguish themselves by wearing simple clothing.They were forbidden from all luxuries and were forbidden to bear arms.Humiliation and exploitation was the policy,motivated by hate as well as to exert pressure to convert to Islam.When the Collector of the Diwan ask them to pay the tax,they should pay it with all humility and submission and should open their mouths to allow Collector to spit into their mouth ( ‪#‎taqazzuz‬).Humiliation & spitting was done to prove the obedience of infidel subjects and to promote the glory of Islam.

From 1562 on, Akbar attempted a policy of pacification.It began with his marriage to the daughter of the Rajput prince Amber and with the abolition of the enslavement of PoW.This followed by abolition of the ‪#‎PilgrimageTax‬,and in 1564,of the ‪#‎PollTax‬.Hindus were given permission to build temples and carry out their religious customs.
It is important to note that till 1567,majority of ‪#‎Rajput‬ princes were still ‪#‎Independent‬ including Gujarat & Sindh provinces.So Akbar turned against Mewar & Chittor, but the resistance if the Rajputs of Mewar,in particular Maharana Pratap Singh and his successors,was not finally broken untill Aurangzeb’s rule.

It was late in 1579,after four years of religious talks ibadat khana,Akbar started with din-i-illahi.He was a self professed ‪#‎Caliphate‬ “Allah is Great” & “Akbar is Allah”. The character of religious talks changed in 1578.Hindus,Christian,Parsees and Jains were invited and confronted with representatives of Islam.Akbar opposed every idolatry,but he publicly worshipped the ‪#‎sun‬ and fire.To this end from 1580, he ‪#‎adopted‬ from ‪#‎Sanskrit‬ literature the prayer with the 1000 names of the sun.

‪#‎Akbar‬ #adopted the elements from ‪#‎HinduTradition‬: the doctrine of reincarnation,ideology that king is a representative of God and should protect his subjects,regardless of their religion and maintain moral order.Akbar adopted the three ‪#‎prayers‬ of the Hindus,and the direction faced while praying was no longer Mecca in the west,but the #Sun in the ‪#‎east‬.There were ten virtues to practise : generosity,charity,avoidance of evil,gentleness,piety,wisdom and devotion in meditation. #Akbar professed ‪#‎Vegetarianism‬ and ‪#‎ban‬ on slaughter of animals were extended as law to the entire empire in 1583.

#Akbar turned ‪#‎away‬ from essential points of ‪#‎Islamic‬ doctrine and expressed ‪#‎doubts‬ about the ‪#‎Prophet‬ Muhammed.He ‪#‎rejected‬ belief in the ‪#‎Resurrection‬ and ‪#‎LastJudgement‬ of the day. He no longer believed in the prophets whose ‪#‎immoral‬ behaviour towards opponents and towards women he had already #criticized in the religious talks.

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He started a System Of Mansabdars ranking based on achievements, reduced the danger of the development of regional dynastic power and created new elites . Emperor Akbar was the only ruler in the 16th century who implemented the Rule Of Reason which even European failed to do so.

A transition of Akbar from orthodox Sunni to Hinduism and amalgamation of Jainism to rule with cooperation.
Till he tried to rule through orthodox Islamic methods,there was chaos for him. Islamic rule of brutality was followed by Akbar, like he massacred common people, abducted women for his harams during the annexation of Chittor .
Hence this famous Indologist Heinrich says it was a strategic and planned syncretism.
Also Heinrich book highlights Akbar being illiterate could never read or repeat the prayers/namaz of that 5 times rituals. But his commonsense & strategic sense was par excellence to call all religious group for brain storming session for his own understanding.

Although these debating session could never end peacefully & conclusively.But these sessions motivated him to start Din-i-illahi. He actually became successful to rule India by following Hinduism peacefully.He was regarded as kafir by sunnis.

A transition of Akbar from orthodox Sunni to Hinduism and amalgamation of Jainism to rule with cooperation.Till he tried to rule through orthox Islamic methods,there was chaos for him.
Islamic rule of brutality was followed by Akbar, like he massacred common people, abducted women for his harams during the annexation of Chittor .

Hence this famous Indologist Heinrich says it was a strategic and planned syncretism. Also Heinrich book highlights Akbar being illiterate could never read or repeat the prayers/namaz of that 5 times rituals. But his commonsense & strategic sense was par excellence to call all religious group for brain storming session for his own understanding.

Although these debating session could never end peacefully & conclusively.But these sessions motivated him to start Din-i-illahi. He actually became successful to rule India by following Hinduism peacefully. Akbar was regarded as kafir by Sunnis.

Why Ashoka and Akbar were called The Great ?

#Similarities:-
1. Ashoka was brutal & even Akbar was brutal
2. Ashoka denounced brutality to become humane & even Akbar did the same
3. Ashoka propogated Buddhism & Akbar propogated Din-i-illahi -an amalgamation of Hinduism,Jainism and Buddhism with Sufism
4. Ashoka ruled India, Pakistan, Afghanistan,Iran and Akbar ruled Indian subcontinent till north of Godavari
#Dissimilarities :-
1.Ashoka became humane after conquering & ruling the whole of his Maurya empire. But Akbar became humane so that he can rule India by having strategic alliances with Hindu kings and traders.
2.Ashoka could propogate Buddhism to all India,Srilanka,far East and far West region. Akbar could hardly even spread his Din-i-illahi within his court.
3.Ashoka never killed,looted,raped common people ( but for Kalinga massacre). But Akbar followed Islamic rule of killing,raping,looting the infidels, common people and selling them as slaves ( Haldighati, annexation of Chittor).
4.Ashoka was a born Hindu and Akbar became a converted Hindu to rule

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