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How Indian historians betrayed with the countrymen?

How Indian historians betrayed with the countrymen?

How Indian historians betrayed with the countrymen? Why you have not projected Hindu king’s fight against evil ?Who was there behind the screen to promote all conspiracy?

The medieval era in Indian History was soaked with blood. It was essentially a period of constant warfare, in which Islamist Forces used their entire strength to conquer India and make it a part of their Caliphate, while the Hindus repulsed them with equal resolve and strength. It is probably one of the longest wars fought in the world, starting immediately after Prophet Muhammed’s Death (~650AD) and continuing upto at least 1803, when the British finally captured Delhi. In a number of ways, the war continues even now.

Within a hundred years of Prophet Muhammed’s death, his cult of barbarism spread all over the Middle East. No ancient civilization was able to resist it – whether Syria, Egypt or even Iran. Before long, the barbarians were at the Gates of Greater India – Afghanistan (Up-Gana-Sthan, place of the allied tribes) & Baluchistan. Both resisted for 500 years until by 1050 AD, both were firmly under Islamic Rule. Now the stage was set for the Invasion of India.

How to Invade India no proper explanation from Indian historians !

India’s geography is quite peculiar, especially its borders. While it is obviously a part of Asia, it is completely cut off from that continent on all sides. In the East, one has the impenetrable jungles of Burma, where even aerial navigation proves impossible. Further North, one has Tibet, the roof of the World, over which no invading force can possibly march or maintain its supply lines. Where Tibet meets India, one has the highest Mountains of the World – Kanchenjuha, Mount Everest, and others.

In the West, one has the vast waterless deserts of Sind and Baluchistan, hundreds of miles of barren wasteland. And finally in the North West, the even more impenetrable cold Desert of Afghanistan, where the terrain is so treacherous that a number of plains are actually dead ends, and end in cliffs. (This was painfully discovered by the British and the Soviets in recent years)

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Overall, there is just one, and only one overland route into India from Asia which an invading army may use safely – the Khyber Pass in the Northwest, crossing from Afghanistan, into present-day Pakistan. All around this Pass, one again has snow covered mountains, that are impassable.

Thus every Invasion into India has to occur from the North West, and more or less through this pass.

How did the Invasions take place  no proper explanation from Indian historians !

One can identify three distinct phases when India was invaded. It is remarkable that each time, the invader’s strategy and the defensive strategy adopted was basically the same. The history thus mirrors itself, over each such phase.

The first phase is the campaigns of Mohammed Ghazni (1030-50) and Mohammed Ghori (1197-1206). In those early years, many of the ancient dynasties were still in existence, including the now-considered backward, Gujjars, who were an Imperial Power then, and the Rajputs. There was stout resistance, and Ghazni could never hold the territories he raided. Only after almost 150 years of trying, Delhi fell in 1198 to Mohammed Ghori, but realizing how difficult it would be to actually rule, he left for Afghanistan, leaving instead his slaves to rule over Delhi. This first Islamic kingdom would come to be known as the Delhi Sultanate. It reached its peak around 1350, but was laid to waste by Taimur’s invasion of 1398. It still lasted upto 1526, but only nominally, while the Hindus again became strong, in the south under the Vijaynagar Empire, in the North under the Rajput Kingdom of Mewar.

The second phase was begun by Babur in 1520s. The strategy was again the same. Controlling Afghanistan, he launched several raids into India and finally a full-scale invasion in 1526, defeating in succession the now terribly weakened Sultanate at Panipat, and the newly-ascendant Rajputs under Rana Sanga at the Battle of Khanwa, the following year, leading to the formation of the Mughal Empire.

There is a certain reasoning behind this strategy. By first launching raids into India, three aims were sought to be fulfilled. One to gain wealth, since India was a terribly rich country, while most Invaders had not enough money to pay their own soldiers. Two, to gain intelligence, and battle-hardening their troops. And three, to gain allies, since a number of lesser kings and Zamindars (Feudal Lords) and even disaffected nobles at the Delhi Court could often be coerced or cajoled into supporting the new Invader.

What happened to the Mughals was the same as the Delhi Sultanate before it  no proper explanation from Indian historians !

It ruled successfully for about 150 years, until by the 1680s it began to weaken. Several Hindu kingdoms raised the banner of revolt, including some Rajputs, peasant movements like the Gujjars, and Jats, religious revivalists like the Sikhs, and Charismatic Warriors like Shivaji (Marathas) and Chattrasal Bundela. By 1707, when Aurangzeb, the last of the “Great Mughals” died, the Empire was in tatters.

Over the next 50 years, history repeated itself, and powerful Hindu kingdoms emerged and re-conquered the entire country.

The third phase was entered now no proper explanation from Indian historians !

Ahmed Shah Durrani, was the Afghan king at the time. Beginning in 1745, he started the same pattern of raids into India. Most raids ended right in the foothills of Afghanistan, but over the years he started to get more and more ambitious. In 1759, he launched his most ambitious raid, defeating several Maratha Garrisons in Punjab, and entering the Northern Plains, penetrating as far as Eastern Uttar Pradesh.

This time however, things would be different need proper explanation from Indian historians !

The principal Hindu Power at the time, the Marathas, decided to take on the Invader. In 1760, they launched a massive Northward Expedition into Northern India from their capital in Western Peninsular India, Poona. Along the way, they gathered allies from all existing Hindu Powers – the Jat Kingdom, the Rajputs, and in Haryana, the Khap Panchayats.

The strategy followed was somewhat different from the previous years. The Marathas decided to entrap Durrani in India itself, and to not let him escape. Thus they set up camp near Delhi.

Durrani realized his strategic mistake – he had stayed on in India too long, and was out of resources. His Indian Muslim allies proved unreliable and unwilling to help – the Mughals because they did not like the upstart, the Lucknow Nawabs because of credal differences (Durrani was Sunni, the Nawabs were Shia).

The Marathas, too, however, were not very happy. They were far away from their capital, and their supply lines were stretched. Their Rajput allies felt that there was no personal gain to be had from this war. The Jat Raja had differences of opinion about strategy, and left too, although remaining allied. Only the Khap Panchayats stood by the Marathas, keeping them supplied from the countryside.

It was now to be a waiting game. Finally, in January 1761, Durrani decided to make a move. The competing armies met at Panipat, the exact same battlefield where in 1198 and 1556, earlier battles had led to the creation of the Delhi Sultanate & the Mughal Empire.

It was quite a titanic struggle – hundreds of thousands (Lakhs) of soldiers fought on each side. The most modern weapons were used – sophisticated muskets, guns and canons. The traditional India war pieces were represented as well – large cavalry forces, and substantial Elephant mounted forces acting as set pieces. No other battle has been fought on that scale anywhere else. And it was all over in less than a day. It started at dawn, and as dusk settled, the Marathas abandoned the battlefield. Most of their principal leaders had been killed, including the young prince Vishwas Rao whom they hoped to crown King of Delhi. Suraj Mal, the Jat King, was at hand, however, and took on an enoromous number of refugees and wounded into his kingdom, nursing each back to health, and sending them off to Poona back.

Technically, the battle had been won by the Afghans, but it was a pyrrhic victory. He was still stuck in Delhi, and Afghanistan was 700 kilometres away; 700 perilous kilometres, every step of the way full of Hindus lying in wait. The Sikhs especially were deeply desirous of revenge, and felt no remorse in inflicting enormous damage on the enemy.

As the Afghans began their torturous journey home, severely weakened by their confrontation at Panipat, stripped already of their treasure, and with no allies anymore, their numbers were now a weakness. Their long caravan was attacked daily, and there was no way that they could fend off the enemy anymore. Less than half of them got home; Durrani himself got a horrible eye wound by an arrow that would still not turn him blind in that eye, yet leak puss until the end of his life.

Thus, while tactically, the Marathas had lost the battle, the Hindus had definitely won the war. It was finally established that the price of entering India were too high now. It had taken 700 years – since the Northern Plains of India were breached in 1197 – but forever now, there would be no invasion from the western passes again. The Sikhs who were until now, nothing more than armed bands, formed into kingdoms, and would in 20 years reverse the course of history, invading Afghanistan, and holding Kabul and Kandahar. The Marathas too would regain their strength, and in the next decade, launch another Northward Expedition, this time with the explicit aim of punishing all those who had supported the Invader earlier – especially the Rohillas (present-day Rampur Princely State.)

by Mohit Dayal

 

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  1. Abhinav Rai
    Abhinav Rai 22 October, 2015, 12:24

    So true. We have been studying a distort history, this article is somewhat an overview of the struggle of centuries still it doesn’t mention decisive hindu vitories such as battle of Rajasthan, Battle of Sindh, Battle of PAtan etc. Fought from 720AD-1350AD which made sure that India never came under caliphate rule

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