“List Of the treasure looted by Mahmud of Gazni”

“List Of the treasure looted by Mahmud of Gazni”

“List Of the treasure looted by Mahmud of Gazni”

Abu Nasr Muhammad Utbi was the secretary of Sultan Mahumud. He noted and clearly mentions the treasure collected by his master during the 17 invasions in India. 1005 to 1030 AD.

1. During his war against the Hindu king Jayapala of Punjab, Jayapala had to secure his release from captivity by paying a ransom of 250,000 Dinars (gold coins, each weighing 120 gms of Gold).

2. The necklace of Jayapala which Mahmud took away valued at 200,000 gold coins (Dinars).

3. The value of the necklace and others valuables taken from the relatives of Jayapala was 400,000 gold coins

4. Bhera was ‘as wealthy as imagination can conceive’. During the capture of Bhera in 1004-1005 AD, all the wealth were looted.


5. In the year 1005-1006 AD Multan was captured and the total wealth looted was 20,000,000 Silver coins (Dirhams).

6. Sukhpala, one of the principal chief of King Jayapal was converted to Muslim by Mahmud and he became Nawasa Shah. When he reconverted as Hindu, Mahmud captured him and took possession of Sukhpala’s wealth amounting to 400,000(Dirhams)

7. Mahmud seized 70,000,000 silver coins (Hindu Shahiya-Punjab), Gold and Silver ingots weighing about few hundred mounds, Jewellary, precious stones from the fort of Bhimnagar.

8. A collapsible house, 30 yards in length and 15 yards in breadth with a canopy (mandapika) all made by silver and two golden poles and two silver poles to support it was also captured from the fort of Bhimnagar.

9. From Baran (Bulandsar) Mahmmud obtained 1000,000 silver coins.

10. Sack of the temple of Mathura yielded 5 idols amounting to 98300 misqal (10 mounds) of Gold. Total Silver idols were 200 in number.

11. Kanauj, Munj,Asni,Sharva and other places yielded another 3,000,000 Silver coins.

12. From Somnath temple alone he looted wealth valued at 20,000,000 Gold coins.

13. In his successive invasion in Punjab and other places in India Mahmud captured so much of wealth that all wealth could not be taken in one time. He had to appoint two special ‘most confidential chamberlains’ named Altuntash and Asightin, to look after the vast wealth and transportation of it to Ghazni.

14. Not only the Sultan personally but all his army men were permitted and carried out independent loot all over where they went, from the slain Hindu soldiers and ordinary Hindu civilians.

15. Due to this loot over a period of 17 years, unprecedented in human history, No coins of Jayapala, Anandapala and Trilochanpala have been found.

16. The flow of bullion from India to Ghazni stabilized Ghaznavide currency and debased Indian currency proportionately. The gold content of the North Indian coins went down from 120 gms to 60gms. The weight and silver content of the Silver coins also reduced. The disturbed political situation caused a severe balance of trade tilted in favour of the lands west of river Sindhu, occupied by the Caliph and his vassals.

Other than the loosing of Hindu land and the wealth to Mahmud of Gazni and the subsequent invaders from the Islamic lands of Caliph, the cruelty associated with these invasions was unparallel in Human history. According to a Muslim chronicler –“The ruler of Thanesar (Kuruskhetra) did not surrender to the wishes of Mahmud. The sultan marched against him to set the standard of Islam….The blood of the infidels flowed so copiously that the stream was discoloured and the people were unable to drink it—praise be to Allah…. for the honour he bestows upon Islam and Musalmans. Similarly in Sirsawa near Saharanpur many infidels were slain and taken prisoner after a sudden attack and the Musalmans paid no regard to the booty till they had satiated themselves with the slaughters of the infidels…. the friends of Allah searched the bodies of the slain for three whole days in order to obtain booty.”

With such achievements to his credit there is little wonder that Mahmud of Ghazni has remained the ideal, the model of Muslims- medieval and modern.

Mahmud Ghaznavi destroyed ‘Hindu Shahiya Dynasty of Punjab’ but Alberuni, the historian, who witnessed the extinction of that mighty Kingdom, says that, “The Kings in all their grandeur, they never slackened in their ardent desire of doing that what is right… they were men of noble sentiments and noble bearing.”…

“Mahmud’s sole business was to wage war against the Thakurs and Rajas…. Mahmud sought to make the plunder of Hindustan as permanent affairs”. The Hindus started becoming religious bigots and indulging in women and wine… “Hindu sciences retired away from those parts of India conquered by us and fled to Kashmir, Banaras and other parts of India. –( ‘The legacy of Jihad’- edited by Andrew G Bostom)
Sultan Mahmud’s acts like ‘iconoclasm’ and proselytisation were continued by future Muslim invaders and rulers and became a legacy of Muslim rule in India, the land of the Hindus.

By Dr M K Debnath

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